Preparation, magnetic properties and microstructure of lean rare-earth
permanent magnetic materials
J. Bernardi, T.Schrefl, J. Fidler, T. Rijks, K.de Kort, V. Archambault,
D. Pere, S. David, D. Givord, J.F. Sullivan, P. Smith, J.M.D. Coey, U.
Czernik and M. Grönefeld
J.M.M.M., 219 (2000) 186-198.
Nanocrystalline, lean rare-earth composite alloys around the nominal
were prepared by various techniques, such as melt-spinning, melt-extraction,
splat cooling and mechanically alloying. The Tb and Co content have been
found to be crucial in these alloys for achieving high coercivities, up
to 500 kA/m. A typical value for the remanence is 1.05¯1.10 T. No
crystallographic texture was observed, thus, the remanence enhancement
was obtained by the spring magnet behavior. The best results have been
found when using amorphous precursors and fairly high heating rates during
the annealing treatment in an infrared furnace. The amount of Tb could
be reduced which yields a lower coercivity but a higher remanence was obtained.
TEM and Mössbauer analysis was carried out to determine the volume
fraction of soft and hard phases. Optimized magnets contained typically
a homogeneous nanocrystalline microstructure of about 50 vol% hard magnetic
phase and about 50 vol% soft magnetic α-Fe plus (Fe,Co)3B
with a narrow grain size distribution. The addition of Si or Nb and Cu
improved the microstructure and the magnetic properties. Bonded magnets
produced from optimized lean rare-earth magnetic powders show an improved
corrosion resistance compared to magnets with higher rare-earth content.
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Feb. 13, 2001